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The possibility of measuring market concentration depends on a correct definition of the market itself; however, this is not always possible, since, as it is the case of the Internet industry, very often Antitrust authorities lack reliable pricing and traffic data.

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This difficulty motivates our paper. We present an alternative approach based on the inference of the Internet Operators interconnection policies using micro-data sourced from their Border Gateway Protocol tables.

We assess market concentration following a two step process: These assess, for each undertaking, both its role in terms of essential network facility and of wholesale market dominance. The results, applied to Aus Linx AL-UVA leading Internet Exchange Points in London, Amsterdam, Frankfurt and Milan, show that Aus Linx AL-UVA vertical segments of these markets are highly concentrated, while others are extremely competitive.

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According to the Merger Guidelines some of the estimated market concentration values would immediately fall within the special attention category. K21,L40, L86, L96 Keywords: Corresponding author: The usual disclaimer applies. Introduction Market Aus Linx AL-UVA is usually associated to the ability of a firm to raise prices above marginal costs, or above their competitive level, without loss of profits.


Competition authorities are interested in market power because of its potential effects in reducing welfare, at least from a static point of view1. In this paper we attempt to measure the extent of market power characterising the Aus Linx AL-UVA upstream access in Europe. The structure of the Internet is indeed highly hierarchical, with a relatively small number of upstream providers the Internet backbones -IBPs- that face the interconnection demand arising from a much larger number of downstream operators of smaller dimensions Internet Service Providers -ISPs.

Our attempt is also related to the ongoing Aus Linx AL-UVA on the possibility of introducing some form of regulation in the Internet upstream access market, whose mechanisms are blamed by many countries to be the cause of the persistence of the digital divide2. It is clear that the possibility of correctly measuring market power depends on a correct definition of the market itself; however, this is not always possible, since very often the antitrust authorities lack reliable data. This is indeed what seems to happen for the proposed mergers between Internet backbones.

Their applicability is however still very problematic for the assessment of the Internet upstream connectivity market, where both interconnection agreements and traffic flows are sealed under Aus Linx AL-UVA agreements. We present an alternative approach to define the relevant market and assess market concentration in the upstream Internet access by using publicly available data. In particular, our analysis is based on the inference of interconnection policies, expressing the real bargaining power of each ISP: We assess market concentration in the European upstream Internet market following a two step process: Interestingly, our measures prove to be very close to the one calculated with actual traffic data4, indicating a potential application of this approach to the antitrust and regulation authorities guidelines. The results show that some vertical segments of these markets are highly concentrated, while others are extremely competitive.

According to the Merger Guidelines [U. HQ Linklist: Intervind Jacques Janssen Online Nijmegen. Kunstkijken Aus Linx AL-UVA gevorderden - Melissa van Amerongen.

Letterenbibliotheek, verwijzingen geschiedenis Aus Linx AL-UVA Leijen's Bookmarks Leren. Internetten Leren. Samenleving Leren. Nederlandse Internet Encyclopedie - Wetenschap en onderzoek. Nederlandse Sociologische Vereniging - Editor: Harry Ganzeboom. Web Sites NL-menu: A NL-menu: Amsterdam NL-menu: P NL-menu: S NL-menu: Overmars NIWI. (гамм, Fulsboden; Иду.) Mit drei Arten aus dem Sande von Bagshot und dem Londonthone von Sussex.

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т 7. G'. auch bei Oppeln in Sóhlïclsièhín'râoqlwle Linx 'Slërsxœidle“VOIÍÍ'Englanll "nient~ зет!!! "vor— :u Al PJ e.

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